Electronic, mobile, digital health approaches in cardiology and for cardiovascular health.
Official partner journal of the European Congress on eCardiology and eHealth
JMIR Cardio (inaugural Editor-in-Chief: Nico Bruining) is a sister journal of the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR), the top cited journal in health informatics (Impact Factor 2016: 5.175). It covers electronic / digital health approaches in cardiology and for cardiovascular health, which includes ehealth and mhealth approaches for the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular conditions.
JMIR Cardio is also the official journal of the European Congress on eCardiology and eHealth. Best papers presented at the conference are selected for JMIR Cardio and as official partner organization, JMIR authors receive a discount (Promo Code: JMIRECARDIO17).
Aug 11, 2017
Jul 27, 2017
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Validity and reliability of the Apple Watch for measuring moderate-intensity exercise
Date Submitted: Jul 27, 2017
Open Peer Review Period: Jul 27, 2017 - Sep 21, 2017
Background: Moderate fitness levels and habitual exercise have a protective effect for cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and all-cause mortality. The Apple Watch displays exercise compl...
Background: Moderate fitness levels and habitual exercise have a protective effect for cardiovascular disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and all-cause mortality. The Apple Watch displays exercise completed at an intensity of a brisk walk or above using a green ‘exercise’ ring. However, it is unknown if the exercise ring accurately represents an exercise intensity comparable to that defined as moderate-intensity. In order for health professionals to prescribe exercise intensity with confidence, consumer sensor-derived wearables need to accurately reflect that measured within the laboratory if they are to be used as part of a personalized medicine approach to disease management. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the validity and reliability of the Apple Watch for measuring moderate-intensity exercise, as defined as 40-59% oxygen consumption reserve (VO2R). Methods: Twenty recreationally active participants completed VO2rest and VO2max tests prior to a series of 5-min bouts of treadmill walking while wearing an Apple Watch on both wrists and with oxygen consumption measured continuously. Exercise continued until the Apple Watch advanced the green ‘exercise’ ring by 5 min (inflection speed). Results: The mean (SD) %VO2R at the treadmill inflection speed was 30 (7) % for both Apple Watches. There was a large underestimation of moderate-intensity exercise (left: mean difference -10% [95%CI: -14 to -7], d = -1.4; right: -10% [95%CI: -13 to -7], d = -1.5) when compared to the criterion of 40% VO2R. Conclusions: The Apple Watch under-estimated moderate-intensity exercise which would lead to an over-estimation of moderate-intensity exercise completed throughout the day.